Ramos, Ramos and Goldenberg: Three Spaniards who created Chinese film industry
Antonio Ramos is very probably the most important pioneer of (and for) early Chinese film history, despite the lack of attention placed on his name by both Western and Chinese academia till very recently. Ramos was not only an intrepid entrepreneur, but a skilled, never-exhausted businessman. Ramos was responsible for the opening of the first film theatres in Shanghai, Hong Kong and Macao; owner for over two decades of the best screens in the country; and head of the distribution channels well beyond his headquarters in Shanghai. He also took this thriving cinema enterprise through the fields of creation and film production. Together with fellow Spaniards Ramon Ramos and Bernardo Goldenberg Levy he constituted the Spanish triumvirate of film pioneers that founded Chinese film industry in the dawn of 20th century and defied Hollywood in the 1920s.
Dr Juan Ignacio Toro Escudero
Dr Juan Ignacio Toro Escudero teaches Spanish at the Language Centre of XJTLU. He received his PhD in Audiovisual Communications from Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He has been a visiting scholar in universities such as Peking University, East China Normal University, Harvard University, and lectured in film History at New York University, Hong Kong University, and Harvard University. He authored "From the brothel to the cinema empire: the fundamental, principal, forgotten and pioneering role of the Spanish soldier Antonio Ramos Espejo in the birth of Chinese cinema" (2016), and is producing a documentary on Ramos' life.